Caroline was born in Koningstad to King Pieter II and Sophie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. She would often get into trouble with her father and governesses, as she enjoyed pulling pranks. In 1904, she was married to Joseph of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, a Belgian prince. With Joseph, she had one son, Pieter Joseph Van Draak. Caroline died shortly after childbirth in 1905.