Maria Amalia was born in Bitburg Castle to King Willem II and Queen Sophia. She was the king's only child and thus was his heir. When the Brunanter Civil War broke out in 1663, she moved to the provisional royal capital of Donderstad. When her father was killed that year the royalists made her the queen on the 18th of June. On the 24th, Karl Van Draak and his army marched into Donderstad and relieved Maria Amalia of her duties and taking them over. She was then allowed to remained at Bitburg, but only after renouncing the claims to the throne for her and her descendants. She married Prince Carl of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1666 and had 11 children, Philip (1666), Amalia (1668), Christine (1670), Wilhelm (1670), August (1672), Carl (1674), Sophia (1675), Anton (1677), Matthias (1679), Louise (1680) and Philippa (1682).